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Toolbox: “MAPPE” (Multimedia Assessment of Pollutant...
“MAPPE” (Multimedia Assessment of Pollutant Pathways in Europe)
Potential use:
An ArcGIS extension enabling production of maps of chemical distribution in air, soil and water at the European continental scale.
Novelty and background:
Typically, chemical fate and transport is evaluated with simple non-spatial box models. When in need of describing spatial aspects of chemical contamination (identification of hot spots, combination of multiple stressors, uneven distribution of receptors in space, etc.), so far distributed numerical transport models have been developed, associated with high  computational complexity and suffering from a lack of transparency directly dependent on their high technical sophistication. The MAPPE approach uses back-of-the-envelope calculations, making errors easy to track; at the same time, it capitalizes on spatially distributed data sets of environmental drivers and emissions of chemicals, which enable easy visual check of the input and results, and yields spatially distributed predictions of chemical concentrations.
Description of tool:
MAPPE implements spatially distributed fate and transport models for Europe, directly with geographic information system (GIS) functions.
The tool is ready for use in the form of an ArcGIS extension (see contacts below). Behind the model, however,  is rather a method than a specific tool, which can be implemented in any geographic information system providing grid analysis functionalities. The method was tested with reference to a few chemicals, including PCBs, dioxins/furans, lindane, PFOS/PFOA and currently used pesticides. A paper has been prepared [1] concerning the most extensive test of the model, together with a description of the model itself, and represents at present the most complete reference on the topic together with two public reports from the NoMiracle project [2, 3]. Further details on the spatial data sets used for calculations are in [4], while [5] provides a review of spatially explicit models, placing into context the conceptual development of GIS-based modelling, and providing a more rigorous mathematical formulation of the approach.  A reference manual is under preparation and will be issued at the end of 2009.     
Current state:
ready to use
  1. Pistocchi A (2008). A GIS-based approach for modeling the fate and transport of pollutants in Europe, Environmental Science and Technology, 42:  3640-3647.
  2. Pistocchi A, Multimedia fate and exposure model with various spatial resolutions at the European level Nomiracle IP D.2.4.1
  3. Pistocchi A, Report on an optimised multimedia fate and human exposure model with various spatial resolutions at the European level Nomiracle IP D.2.4.6
  4. Pistocchi A, Vizcaino M P, Pennington D W (2006). Analysis of Landscape and Climate Parameters for Continental Scale Assessment of the Fate of Pollutants. EUR 22624 EN ISSN: 1018-5593 ISBN: 978-92-79-04809-8. Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities.
  5. Pistocchi A., Sarigiannis D, Vizcaino P, (2009) Spatially explicit multimedia fate models for pollutants in Europe: state of the art and perspectives. Accepted for publication, Science of the Total Environment.
Responsible scientists:
Alberto Pistocchi, JRC-IES, for scientific issues.
Giovanni Bidoglio, JRC-IES, for conditions of use.
Related to deliverable:
MAPPE Tool box.doc