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Toolbox: Nested box model
Nested box model
Potential use:
Estimates spatially variable concentrations in Europe.
Novelty and background:
Traditionally, (nested) box models estimate equal concentrations for all locations because they assume homogenous compartments and emissions. The tool, based on Simplebox, estimates spatially variable concentrations in Europe by re-parameterizing environmental conditions and emissions for different regions consecutively to represent all different regions in Europe one by one. The model can be used to estimate spatially explicit environmental concentrations, when the use of a spatially-resolved model is too expensive, computationally intensive or time-consuming. Additionally, the spatial resolution can be adapted to needs and data-availability. 
Description of tool:
The modelling approach is described in more detail in (1). The performance of the tool has been compared to results of a spatially explicit model (2) and to monitoring data for PCB-153 (2,3). The steady-state version of the tool is ready for use in a spreadsheet application and can be run using the macro ‘spatEmis_incalcout’.
Current state:
ready to use
  1. Hollander A, Pistocchi A, Huijbregts M A J, Ragas A, Van de Meent D. Substance or space? The relative importance of substance properties and environmental characteristics in modeling the fate of chemicals in Europe. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 2008, 28, 44-51.
  2. Hollander A, Sauter F, den Hollander H, Huijbregts M, Ragas A, van de Meent D. Spatial variance in multimedia mass balance models: Comparison of LOTOS-EUROS and SimpleBox for PCB-153. Chemosphere 2007, 68, 1318-1326.
  3. Hauck M, Huijbregts M A J, Hollander A, Hendriks A J, Van de Meent D. Modeled and monitored variation in space and time of PCB153 concentrations in air, sediment, soil and aquatic biota on a European scale. Sci Total Environ 2009, Accepted for publication.
Responsible scientists:
Mara Hauck, Radboud University Nijmegen,
Mark Huijbregts, Radboud University Nijmegen,
Anne Hollander, Radboud University Nijmegen,
Dik van de Meent, Radboud University Nijmegen, National Institute of Public Health and the Environment,
Related to deliverable:
D 2.4.7, D 2.4.14
Nested Box Model Spatial Concentrations in Europe.doc